2 Окт 2012 Shaktijinn 1
in the areas of monetary integration, foreign trade, currencies exchange rates and innovativeness of enterprises. Co-author and editor of team research. 50 mln USD rosyj- skiemu ¸UKoilowi trzech firm z grupy JESU (zarejestrowanych w rajach podatkowych: Lanata Trading, Lansin Commercial LTD. (against ) and the average PLN/USD exchange rate was (against ). At the end of , the interest rate on year Treasury bonds amounted. PROFITABLE FOREX EXPERT ADVISORS Assign users Messenger is new log choice for. Only the final directory in the a shift own risk, times, the the focus you adjust the path 0. Navigate to files Remotely name of email address account that's. I like that basically be interpreted.
However, it is evident that any changes that are made to the entitlements - such as increasing or decreasing the volume of the municipality's concession power entitlements, changing how the concession power price is calculated or changing the structure of the right to concession power - may affect the market price of concession power entitlements. The municipality instructed law firm Hjort DA 'Hjort' to assess inter alia the tax implications of selling the concession power entitlements.
DS asked three market participants to put a value on a year concession power contract. It follows from the report that questions could be raised whether Statkraft SF would enter into an agreement longer than until , when the majority of the municipality's concession power entitlements were due for assessment, because of the risk inherent in this process It is the Authority's preliminary view that the effects of this risk are ambiguous, ultimately depending on whether or not the changes may be favourable to the beneficiaries of the concession power entitlements.
This method projects future cash flows revenues and costs and discounts them, using a weighted average cost of capital 'WACC as a discount factor, to arrive at a net present value 'NPV of the future cash flows. Under normal circumstances, this NPV would reflect the market price of the underlying asset.
Variables i - iii affecting the NPV of the concession power. It is assumed that there will be limited, if any, real increases in the concession power price over the duration of the contract In addition, this cost amounts to approximately NOK 0,02 per KWh, and is thus of lesser importance relative to the other variables when calculating the net present value. Concerning the volume of electricity, however, the Authority raises two specific questions:.
The value assessment by DS also used GWh, and they explicitly stated in their final report that:. By this point, DT had concluded that the value of the contract was NOK million and not million, as stated earlier in May It appears that this change was partly due to the minor adjustment of some of the assumptions used in the NPV calculation amongst others the discount factor and the electricity prices , but it was also updated to reflect the value of GWh of concession power and not GWh.
This second report was not disclosed to the municipality prior to it entering into the contract. An economic advantage could thus have been conferred upon NEAS. This suggests that the risk of any changes in the volume is transferred to NEAS. However, it is stipulated in Article 2 that in total the concession power is GWh annually, which leaves open the question of what happens if that volume of the concession power entitlement is increased or decreased in the future.
These two variables were identified by DT as the factors to which the value estimates of the entitlement were especially sensitive to marginal adjustments. Variables iv - v affecting the NPV of the concession power. This is reflected in the fact that the expert reports referred to above only project future electricity prices approximately 10 years forward, beyond which electricity prices are assumed constant in real terms This uncertainty of future electricity prices is, as mentioned previously, also reflected in the fact that financial contracts on the Nordic power markets are limited to a maximum duration of six years.
The discount rate reflects both the time value of money investors normally have a time preference and would rather have cash up front than having to wait, therefore they must be compensated for this delay , as well as a risk premium. Moreover, and similarly to the fourth variable the market price of electricity , it may be difficult to accurately predict, for example, inflation and interest rates 50 years into the future The value was also very sensitive to changes in electricity spot prices: a NOK 0,01 change in real spot prices over a 10 year period relative to the estimated prices in the model would change the value by NOK 16 million The relatively large range indicates uncertainty about the actual market value of the concession power entitlement over a period of 50 years.
A competitive bidding process would have allowed the market value of the concession power entitlement to be determined ex ante. Moreover, if the municipality allowed interested parties to make bids without stipulating a fixed duration, this would more likely have revealed the true market price of the underlying assets over the lifetime of the asset, which may have revealed whether a year contract was the optimal length in order to 'maximize return on a long-term basis Concession power is sold under different contracts with different length to diversify risk.
This would also have been in line with the decision of 25 November , that was the foundation of the transaction, in which it was stated that:. Therefore, the Authority cannot rule out that an advantage was granted to NEAS as a result of this transaction. If the entitlement was sold for a price below its market value, an economic advantage was granted to NEAS. Favouring certain undertakings or the production of certain goods. In the present case, the aid measure appears to be selective in that it favours NEAS in comparison to other undertakings as only NEAS signed the contract with the municipality.
The contract was the result of individual negotiations between the municipality and NEAS. Distortion of competition and effect on trade between Contracting Parties. To the extent that the company is active in areas subject to intra-EEA trade, the requirements of Article 61 1 EEA for a measure to constitute State aid are fulfilled.
An effect on trade between the Contracting Parties as a result of the aid measure cannot, therefore, be excluded. The State concerned shall not put its proposed measures into effect until the procedure has resulted in a final decision'. Therefore, the Authority concludes that if the measure constitutes State aid, the Norwegian authorities have not respected their obligations pursuant to Article 1 3 of Part I of Protocol 3 SCA. Furthermore, the aid does not appear to facilitate the development of certain economic activities or certain economic areas, further to Article 61 3 c EEA.
The Authority therefore doubts that the transaction under assessment can be justified under the State aid provisions of the EEA Agreement. Furthermore, the Authority has doubts that this measure can be regarded as complying with Article 61 2 or 3 of the EEA Agreement.
The decision to open proceedings is without prejudice to the final decision of the Authority, which may conclude that the measure in question is compatible with the functioning of the EEA Agreement. The Authority specifically asks the Norwegian Authorities to reply to the two questions raised in paragraphs 68 to 73 of this Decision. The formal investigation procedure, provided for in Article 1 2 of Part I of Protocol 3 to the Surveillance and Court Agreement, is initiated against Norway regarding the sale of Narvik municipality's entitlement to annual concession power for 50,5 years to Narvik Energi AS, for the sum of NOK million.
The Norwegian authorities are invited, pursuant to Article 6 1 of Part II of Protocol 3, to submit their comments on the opening of the formal investigation procedure within one month of the notification of this Decision. The Norwegian authorities are requested to provide, within one month of the notification of this Decision, all documents, information and data needed for the assessment of the compatibility of the aid measure.
This would be important because the independent advisers involved in the valuation process only assessed the value of the concession power for a period of 50 years, and did not necessarily assess how to 'maximize return on a long-term basis. UE C z dnia 26 kwietnia r. Whereas: I. FACTS 1. The complaint 3 According to the complaint, on 16 October the municipality entered into a contract with NEAS for the sale of GWh of annual concession power for a period of 50,5 years. Background 3. Concession power regime 7 Any municipality which has hydropower production within its borders is entitled to receive an annual amount of concession power from concessionaires for waterfall exploitation.
Narvik municipality and the contract with Narvik Energi AS 12 Narvik municipality is located in the county of Nordland. Concession power is sold to the highest bidder on long-term contracts with a fixed return, however with adjustment clauses that give additional returns if the prices are substantially higher than the projected prices in the contract period; 2. Concession power is sold under different contracts of different lengths to diversify risk; 3.
The mayor is granted power of attorney to enter into agreements according to the strategy decided by the Municipal Council; and 4. Comments by the Norwegian authorities 42 The Norwegian Authorities are of the opinion that the contract with NEAS was concluded at market terms and that only the final arrangement regarding how the consideration was to be structured, as reflected in supplementary agreement of 29 November , was influenced by the municipality's ownership interest in NEAS.
The presence of State aid 45 Article 61 1 of the EEA Agreement reads as follows: 'Save as otherwise provided in this Agreement, any aid granted by EC Member States, EFTA States or through State resources in any form whatsoever which distorts or threatens to distort competition by favouring certain undertakings or the production of certain goods shall, in so far as it affects trade between Contracting Parties, be incompatible with the functioning of this Agreement.
Economic advantage 47 When governments make financial transactions and investments, the European Court of Justice has stated that in order to confirm whether a State measure constitutes aid, it is necessary to establish whether the recipient undertaking receives an economic advantage, which it would not have obtained under normal market conditions Contract for the sale of the municipality's entitlement to annual concession power to NEAS 53 As described in section 3. Regulatory risks 59 According to information provided by the Norwegian authorities, the majority of the municipality's concession power entitlements are due for assessment in Zasada ta nie umniejsza natury decyzji referred to this amendment.
Nonetheless ex lege. Wrong preliminary tek Dokonana przez konserwatora a rigour of immediate enforceability. This contention becomes legitimate w interesie publicznym. The interplay between the constitutional guarantees and procedural mechanisms renders the proceedings and its upshot correct from the rule of law perspec- 5.
Thus such Articles as, among praw materialnych oraz proceduralnych. W praktycznym wymiarze, art. Ginter, A. Komentarz, LEX Dobosz, M. Wiktorowska, Teoretyczno- Zob. Knysiak- Ernesta Knosali, Warszawa , s. Knysiak-Molczyk, Uprawnienia strony w po- Komentarz, Warszawa Zeidler, Warszawa , Lex Niczyporuk, Lublin Podobnie zasada proporcjonal- issue. Physicochemical investigation has of them were forgotten or discredited as copies of the gained the role of the most reliable and objective method originals.
Are the paintings really just copies? Is there an applied in the discipline. Lischka started educa- materiality of the paintings. Forgotten artworks by Johann Christoph Lischka. Around he traveled to Italy and stayed there for 6 years7. Unfortunately, the research conducted in Italian archives did not bring satisfactory answers to the questions about the places he visited during that time8.
Around , Lischka was active in Prague In , he was mentioned as the court painter of Friedrich of Wallenstein, the archbishop of Prague He could have stayed longer in the Osek Cistercian Monastery, where he presumably had a workshop and a small painting academy for the monks The relation between the student and his master is considerably complex and it had an enormous impact on the perception of the art created by both of them It seems that the younger painter remained in Fig.
Now it can be re- with loose brushstrokes build the composition There are more works similar to Noli me What is more, the white pigment was rarely present in tangere in Poland and Czech Republic. The restorers often described the big tion with the restorers and the use of physicochemical pentimenti clearly visible in the underpainting: especially analysis of the canvases can function as the crucial re- in the monumental high altar paintings in conventual search method making it possible to distinguish original churches in Osek and Prague Chalk ground with a red bole pigment was found in all the examined paintings.
The article sets out to present seven paintings, which According to her, it could have caused quicker deterio- can be divided into three groups. The three paintings ration by splitting of paint layers. Hence they can serve as works and vastly deformed the original compositions. The conservation research included commissioned in the last decade of the seventeenth cen- photographic documentation: X-ray, infrared, and UV tury for the Cistercian monastery in Plasy, but their initial images.
The results are coherent with the descriptions location has changed. Saint Charles Borromeo in Chlum Sv. It is of the Knights of the Red Star. They have been newly worth noting that the condition of the paint layers was attributed to Lischka30 and that hypothesis still needs to described as alarming.
The thick overpaint covered large be proved; no archival record has been found to support areas of the surface. Many retouches reached the canvas it. It will be interesting to see if there are any similarities support. What is more, the old glue-paste lining caused between the paintings from Silesia and Bohemia and if large deformation of the paint layers near the seams Is it a correct assump- cin Ciba in Cracow The initial pictorial documenta- tion?
One cannot underestimate the later unprofessional interventions. The iconography. Only the multi-perspective view enabled next important question is: is there any chance to un- initial selection of the works of art and the hypotheses cover the original compositions? The authorship is less questionable and they could serve as painting was created in for the royal chapel in the the reference point for the works from Czech Republic.
Plasy Abbey. In the group of the analyzed paintings Angel seems to be the most consistent and free from later interventions. Although the painting was relined and restored the varnish is non-orginal and there are traces of modern pigments such as barium sulfate, zinc white, and chrome yellow , it has no signs of major overpainting.
One can assume that the painter used pigments such as: red, blue and yellow ochre, malachite green, white lead, vermilion and presumably azurite. It is noteworthy that the lack of a black preparatory drawing and the sketchy brushwork of the underpainting suggest that the painter worked mainly alla prima and treated the dead color layer Fig.
The painting manner seems to be similar parish chronicle from Tymowa. Even though the painting as well. However, it is more probable workshop. He agreed with Cimbal and dated the painting that Lischka painted them between and when between and The formal old church in Tymowa was given to the Protestants.
Moreover, among the sculptural decoration local Catholics. The temple was consecrated in Both of the by Mary. The background side should be interpreted as Mary Magdalene. The base is reduced to the clouds of smoke and celestial light. The clear geometrical arrangement combined brushwork resembles the painting technique in the other with the absence of supernatural elements in the paint- oil-sketches created by Lischka, for instance Stigmatization ing could be seen as a reference to the Italian Renaissance of Saint Francis in the National Gallery in Prague.
The art masters. At Staatliche Kunstsammlungen. However, pigment analysis has white, zinc white, and chrome yellow. The vermilion, white lead, umbre, chrome green, smalt and non-original varnish ends with the frame border — it could various kinds of ochre. As was the case with Lamentation mean that the renovation was conducted in situ, without of Christ from Tymowa, the analysis suggested the use of taking the canvas out of the stretcher and the whole altar Prussian blue The painting technique slightly differs construction.
Interestingly, the composition was sig- from the other analyzed paintings. The pieces of art of Prussian blue Augustini, s. Davidis eighteenth century. Hieronymi, s. Petri, s. Mariae Magdalenae et s. Mariae Aegypticae, quae opuscula pariter sunt paudati D. It was created as members of the local community. It depicts the scene of them as poor copies45 or pieces of art destroyed by many the discovery of the Holy Cross: according to the legend, retouchings The people around him with the Silesian painter Above her one can see the painting Saint Augustine similar to the work from Plasy Cross being elevated by a group of men.
The top of the both in size and composition. Saint Augustine is presented Cross is held by angels. The quality: it is highly probable that it is a copy. Ciba the six canvases from confessionals differ in manner and painting technique; hence, it seems rather presumptuous to assume that they are all copies. Basic formal analysis has led to the hypothesis that both pieces of art are overpainted originals.
The original linen canvas is thick and thickly woven. There is no relining: the brown-red ground per- Fig. Pracze Widawskie, X-ray photo by M. Ciba The paint layers create an impression of solid, compact forms. The strong darkening of the varnish has made ably oil or varnish. The second white-grey layer visible the composition unclear — the dark background on the in cross-sections could be interpreted as underpainting upper part is unrecognizable.
Cross-section analyses have with dominant white lead. The artist worked with varnish on the original layers of the painting. The oil bole ground Is there an explanation for the multitude of layers? One seems very heterogenous. There is a separate grey oil build-up in the sample no. The painting layer is partly covered with dust and the structure of the draperies between the paint layers dirt.
The preparatory drawing is absent. Saint Wenceslaus parish church in the Cistercian mon- All of the materials applied were commonly used by the astery complex in Plasy. The Cistercian Abbot Andreas eighteenth century artists. There are no traces of modern Troyer decided to reconstruct the medieval church in synthetic pigments.
Therefore, it can be inferred that the the Baroque style — Researchers agree that Pink began to work century possibly by Anton Pink. The bad condition of in Bohemia around , so he could not have painted the canvas and the unquestionable historical value of the for Monastery in Plasy in the seventeenth century The picted in the center with baby Jesus in his arms seems to medieval temple was destroyed in the Hence, one able that during those years Lischka, who at that time was should see Saint Joseph as a forgotten, unprofessionally working for the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, restored work by the Silesian painter.
The painting is The physicochemical analysis of the painting was almost absent in literature. Rudolf elements of the retable are very fragile and breakable. The painting depicts a scene from the New suggested that the wooden parts of the structure and the Testament.
After the descent from the Cross, the dead stretcher are original. The lap. Saint Mary Magdalene is horizontal wood panels, 2 cm thick. Saint John Evangelist can be visible behind the Lischka applied just one or two thin painting layers di- Holy Mother. Two crying putti complete the scene: the rectly on the wooden support. On the opposite wall, there is lead, and charcoal black.
In contrast to the other examined works of art, and complementing Lamentation of Christ iconographically. The varnish is not original and there are the beginning of the eighteenth century. Cracks els in a horizontal format. There is just one other work and defects are visible on all panels. The largest defect is attributed to the artist and painted on wood. The biggest lacuna is 50 cm2 in size. Pinakothek, No. The horizontal format was The remaining painting layers are heavily destroyed.
Especially the naked body of Christ and the face of of a damp patch caused by the humid environment Lamentation of Christ in the main altar in analysis of the work itself have revealed that the upper Our Lady of Sorrows Parish Church in Tymowa.
The panel is not original. Interestingly, the head of Mother of God was cut out Why do the color composition and brushwork seem to from the original panel and added to the new one, which be different in some parts of the painting? It is possible missioned by the Grand Masters of the Prague monas- that the substitution of the original panel was a result of tery who often cooperated with the artist: count Johann heavy damage caused by water. Friedrich of Wallenstein was the archbishop of Prague and This extreme restoration could have been conduct- the most important commissioner for the Silesian painter.
In , the parish priest sent hann Franz Franchimont of Frankenfeld, Lischka created a letter to the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star many paintings and frescoes in the Prague conventual in Prague about the bad condition of the church He church. The renovation translocations of pieces of art. Among the bills one pothesis that the work in can see information about the paintings. Saint Joseph, The As- ures painted by Lischka. Some istrators in the nineteenth and twentieth century.
This parts of the painting seem to be covered with overpaint. It has shown that the painting was never painting manner. Presumably the original pendant renovated, or relined. However, it was resized in the was damaged to such an extent that it was impossible nineteenth century.
The painting was enlarged by to save the original panel. The additional canvas of the dead Christ. It is important to mention that the features different thickness and the new painting lay- advancing degradation of the wooden support and the ers vary from the original, which is clearly visible on paint layers can soon lead to the complete destruction the back side: there is no sign of red emulsion ground of Lamentation of Christ.
The stretcher and the frame must have been replaced with the enlargement of the paint- ing. After the restitution of the church of the saint is covered with more painting layers, the goods, the museum was closed and since then the paint- light effects are created by loose brushwork that could ing has been stored in the monastery buildings In , be described as alla prima. On the other hand, the underpainting is ab- Lischka If Saint Charles Borromeo was originally created sent elsewhere, e.
It consists of clay bole, cinna- painting. What is interest- whiting. Interestingly, the ground has two layers; the ing, the same crackelure structure recurs all over the upper one is fatter and less heterogeneous. All these original fragment of the canvas, which could indicate elements lead to the conclusion that the painting should that this entire part was created at the same time.
Although the pigments are similar to the the eighteenth century. Recently indistinguishable. The researcher has also of 30 of them is still questionable. Eight paint- concurrently with the nearby latticework It lacks the preparatory drawing, its underpainting seems As said before, the relation between the student and his thicker, and there is a pentimento — the position of the step-father was multifaceted and complicated.
Their juxtaposition was possible due to the broad after his return from Italy. The chemical composition of into consideration as the potential creator. Only with posed of clay bole, chalk and an emulsion of animal glue the whole spectrum of comparative material one could and oil What is interesting, presumably both painters form reliable conclusions about the authorship or dis- added an isolating layer of varnish on the ground The tinctive features of the painting techniques.
The analyzed works came into view The preparatory drawing on the bole ground is the om- as interesting cases of old restoration techniques. The physicochemical research proved the existence of The paintings from Silesia represent a consistent group a sketch made with black oil paint in all his analyzed of works created during a short period of time between works In the paintings attributed to Lischka there is and The infrared photos showed no tion and the structure of pictorial layers.
The visible trace of it. Most paintings have the same very loose and broad brushstrokes. Lacking the prepara- linen canvas support and thick layer of emulsion bole tory drawing, the underpainting layer played the role ground. The cross- paintings from Tymowa and Plasy.
Based on the presented pigment, charcoal black, vine black and earth green. The differences in the used pigments could support the thesis that Lischka had at least two separate workshops: in Bohemia and in Silesia. In Silesia the painter tended to use the same materials as his step-father.
The Prussian blue in the paintings from Tymowa and Pracze Widawskie seems to be a substantial change to the colouring. Unlike Willmann, Lischka used the dead layer as an initial sketch and formed it very freely and spontaneously. The large number of pentimenti in his works is the best proof of that practice. Hence, Saint Charles Borromeo with the smoother and more calculated brushwork in the underpainting was presumably created by another artist at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
As presented, the technical art history methods Fig. If they are the originals, is it possible to art-works together with the historic and artistic value of renovate them? However, the problem of future res- prevent them from further deterioration I would like to thank all the institutions that red in the PhD thesis written by the author of the article.
Die Bestellung, Besoldung, tury, in: Conservation of the easel paintings, ed. See the third volume of G. Przyczynki do studium nad — kultura, ed. Historia — kultura — sztuka, ed. Februar , p. August Marie v kostele renovatus a F. Benedicto Scheppl, Sac. Praha, Jan Jakub Quirin Jahn, sign. M III. Praha , pp. Dokumentace —, — Ibidem, p. Emanuel Poche, Praha , pp.
D, Eng. Wyniki Petersberg , pp. De picturis a celebri D. Jacobo Pink sagaci penicillo expressis. Lapis sepulchralis, p. Praha , p. Unfortunately, after the sizable destruction and the , pp. Hence, the modeletto pagination. Emanuel Poche, vol. Kilka hipotez na temat warsztatu Michaela Willmanna, in: , pp. Listovnice 1—18 , no pagination. Skulptur — Malerei — Kunsthandwerk — , ed.
Tursko — , no pagination 27 August Ibidem, no pagination 12 V Marina v Tursku — , p. See: Ibidem, p. It tackles the question of the painting nowi Christophowi Lischce ok. Opracowa- into the materiality of the paintings. Pomimo landscape. Con- odpowiednim poziomie. Swift protection and reinforcement realne. Repair problems of the wooden structure of churches. Wherever wooden structural jest kruchta.
The repair of damaged elements most often involves drewna. Advanced corrosion processes often occur as a result of long-term penetration of rainwa- ter and dampness of these elements. The repair typically 3. If necessary, the nych. Modern technical solu- elementu lub jego fragmentu. Bartholomew in Gliwice. Na ryc. The destruction of the rafter framing elements by biological corrosion St. Bartholomew church in Gliwice from the sixteenth century a b Ryc.
Zaprojektowano wzmocnienia remontu w ko ciele pw. Wall plates and roof covering during renovation in the St. Reinforcements of the lower sections of rafters and collar beams with single — or double-sided lap splices made of larch wood, connected 4. It also happens that ground z gruntem. Uszkodzenia the footings they are in direct contact with the ground. Steel supporting wymiany ryc. Damages caused by insects church of St. Biological corrosion of Ground beams: a church of St.
Bartholomew in Smolnica the seventeenth century — foundation stone blocks in the corners of the walls a b Ryc. Michael the Archangel in ernica the seven- teenth century Ryc. It is not appropriate betonowymi.
Condition of horizontal insulation from copper sheet after 15 years of service — church of St. Masonry je do poziomu terenu. Wymiana bardzo uszkodzonych construction made of logs. Stosuje may threaten the stability of the structure. Lisice dwu- lub jednostronne. Lisice jednostronne stosuje can be single — or double-sided.
Na sided wooden lisice. Wymiana uszkodzonych bali cian — kaplica pw. Replacement of damaged walls elements in the chapel of St. Hedwig in Wisla Czarne Ryc. Replacing parts of the walls of the St. In St. Widoczny na ryc. Zaprojektowano measure during the renovation of the building. Dodatkowo the vestibule of the vestry and the vestry. Strengthening of the walls on the horizontal wind in the church in ernica Ryc.
Strengthening of load-bearing trapezoidal girders in the Holy Cross church in Slawkow Ryc. Z takim solutions are used in the structures. The structure was czyzny. Czasem wzmocnienia wymaga pojedynczy element Sometimes only one structural element needs to konstrukcji.
Jadwigi be reinforced. This was the case for the Chapel of St. Impregnacja should undergo the deep impregnation process. View and detail of the walls of the St. Heritage Conservation ;— Selected methods konstrukcji drewnianych. The glue and mechanical of diagnosis of historical timber structures — prin- joints in repair, conservation and strengthening of ciples and possibilities of assessment.
Advanced timber historical structures. W referacie przedstawio- material. Opisano metody scribed. The work was illustrated with many z wykonanych prac naprawczych. The teren ten, pod koniec XV w. Sir Hen- probably set nearby St. Leonard church. Wollaton Hall and its creator. An engraving from Britannia Illustrata pub- lished in shows four broad avenues radiating outwards from Wollaton Hall towards the boarder of the park , . In the second half of the 18th century the park was considerably modified to emphasise its natural Ryc.
Wollaton Hall, 2. Muzeum Industrializacji, 3. Szklarnia, 4. Budynek beauty as was then fash- stajni, 5. Park jeleni, 6. Great Pond, 9. New architectural Fig. Wollaton Hall estate: 1. The Industrial Museum, 3. Greenhouse, 4. The Stable, 5.
Deer Park, 6. The Arbour Hill, 7. The Great Pond, 9. Na pierwszym pulsory element of an idyllic landscape. Jak przedstawia rycina entrance gate. The present boundary of the estate was z r. Wol- brama wjazdowa. Dopiero w r. The improvements Cassandra Willoughby i jej brat, 4. In , 11th Baron Middleton sold the estate to the Kolejne pomieszczenia mieszkalne o niskim statusie city and a year later following minor alterations, the hall Ryc. W ramach prac stworzono nowy westybul, family residence was successful.
Przy tak ogromnej and Wardour Castle. Nothing is known about his an- W r. W czasie Cumberland as argued in the article published in However, there is also a theory that Robert might have been born or spent his childhood in London. W tym czasie, w r. The presence of a tall plinth that building was built on w Derbyshire, Doddington Hall z r. Full orders had obiektu.
The French gardens were designed in three squares to the south of the mansion. Jest to jedna z pierwszych rezydencji companying outbuildings into one symmetrical scheme. Longleat, but on a much greater scale. The murem ryc. There is no evidence jak brama wjazdowa, stajnia, mleczarnia i pralnia oraz of its function but perhaps it was used to admire sur- browarnia i piekarnia , , , . These czenia withdrawing room i sypialni. Jest to niespotykane include layouts used at the time in France.
This raise questions. It is possible that, along with some other Elizabethan mansions, Wollaton has a coded message comprehen- sible only to a scholar. It is well known that the main intention of the era was to provoke astonishment Ryc. Analo- Fig. Michelgrove press an ingenious idea.
The composition of Hans Vredeman de Vries. Pierwowzorem dla comprehensive and elaborate sources at the time. The entrance gate and w Dorset czy w Warwick Castle wzniesionej w r. Smythson must have had w r. The ,  ryc. Fur- erudyty? The innovative de- son. Sumptuous nym w jego centrum. A Conservation Plan for  Summerson J. Architecture in Britain — Wollaton Hall and Park.
English Architecture. Thames and  Howard M. Elizabethan Architecture. Its Rise Penguin Group, London, The Smythson Circle. The Story of gland. Batsford Ltd. Design and Plan in the than Country House. London, A Building History. Sutton Publishing, The Tudor House and Garden. Elizabethan buildings in England. The by. W celu zagwarantowania powodzenia the queen. Gardens in mental hospitals at the turn of the 19th and 20th century — reinterpretation.
The analysis of case wizjach lokalnych. Three architects: Christian Friedrich Stockhausen, Friedrich Obenauer and Paul Amelung were employed to design and build the hospital 1. The hospital buildings were Ryc. Staniewska and ensure friendly conditions of the hospital stay. Among other things, room had bigger windows letting in Hofheim bei Riedstadt . Lifts were installed in buildings for the seri- Friedricha Stockhausena, Friedricha Obenauera i Paula ously ill, so that the bed-bound could also be taken to Amelunga1.
W budynkach dla chorych zamontowano windy, authority. W zespole poszpitalnym po remoncie completion was planned for the spring The favourable climate historycznymi. Jako e. Plan rewaloryzacji ogrodu Arboretum Heppenheim, proj. Properties of substances contained in the m.
Jednak nie order to prepare a functional programme. Prace przygoto- of Monte Calvo . In the past, z Wiedniem, por. Today the border between no-wschodniej. Staniewska Fig. The main building of the former Frenocomio Di Trieste built in neo-renaissance style, photo by A. That low neo-Renaissance building sig- do budowania wyrazistej kompozycji przestrzennej.
On the other hand, the square and i kontekst miejsca. In , the local and regional authorities, together with the depart- ment of health and the university, decided to support the enterprise. Parco di San Giovanni — plan rozarium — jedna z tablic fot. Otwarcie rozarium na- Fineschi7 from Roseto Botanico in Cavriglia. It implies the possibility nie i utrzymanie. The landscape constituted an integral part of dawnych szpitali psychiatrycznych, a projektowanym old psychiatric hospitals, and designed gardens were ogrodom przypisywano znaczenie terapeutyczne.
Electa, Milan, Trieste Multifaceted therapeutic be-  Beer A. Journal of Food Science ;73 1 : 14— GeoJournal ;  Pae H. Bignoniaceae on the productions In: Bresler J. Journal of Ethnopharmacology  Gams I. Environ- nlm. Die Irrenanstalt nach allen ihren  Jurczak M.
Arboretum Heppenheim an der access In: Hodor K, suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation. PK, wicz P. Hildegardy z Bingen. Il Piccolo, czytelniamedyczna. In: Nirmal J. European Jo- M. Biomedical Sciences ;38 4 — The Port of Trieste and its railway  Weber J.
Zwischen Granit und Sandst connections in the Habsburg Monarchy: economic ein — Landschaft erleben Der Naturpark Berg- change and infrastructure problems, — In: Quade H. World Rose News. Hannover 22, Hannover , —, online: deepsouthdistrict. Sboccia dopo un secolo la rosa bianca di Trieste fiore antico 4 Por. Kompleksy szpitalne pod- allowed for occupational therapy. Wiele matizing perception of mental disorders. Because of the budynku. From the south and the north the room was en- closed with partition walls dating back to previous epochs, and a door opening was cut in the north wall.
Within it there were relics of historical walls from various stages of the palace building and the Ryc. Rzut badanego pomieszczenia, rys. The few earth sequences found there belonged to landfills in installation digs, which completely destroyed building accumulations and damaged the substance of historic walls in many places. The vestigially preserved above-ground wall was cut by later construction earthwork; on the south side it was damaged by an installation pit probably from the 19th or the beginning of the 20th century.
The faces of the above-ground section of the wall were damaged in the course of various construction work and architectonic transformations of the object. Both the length and the width of the preserved relic Ryc. The crown, equally Fig. Natomiast of the interior. The footing has not been discovered. One ku XX. Klaudia Stala Ryc. Fragmentarycznie zachowane lico zachodnie muru z za- Fig.
Klaudia Stala Klaudia Stala Fig. Fragmentarycznie zachowane lico wschodnie muru, fot. View of the two preserved ashlars of the elevation face of Fig. Nie uchwycono room, i. One can see the above-ground facing stopy fundamentowej. Do niego od strony zachodniej dostawiony ing building. Therefore, the new object must have absorbed rezydencji za panowania Zygmunta III Wazy, wykonanej the relics of the older building.
W partii nadziemnej zbu- on the south side. Nowe Ryc. Zachodzi przy- the removal of rubble that had covered it. Technika budowy muru i ma- could be a fragment of a wall niche e. The construction inwentaryzacyjnych z roku przeprowadzonych przez technology and the building material of the wall might S. Sulma9 as well as results damentu The above-ground section and the stone plinth seem to constitute a separate construction stage that nowadays is associated with the load-bearing wall of the palace of Stefan Batory, erected for the king by the Ital- ian architect, Santi Gucci, and can be dated back to the end of the 16th century Rzut budynku WAPK, tzw.
Stala value, as well as the eventful and complicated past Fig. Furlepa, A. Kadela, A. Steuer-Jurek, Studia D. Concept of the appearance of the fortalice of Casimir the Fig. Steuer- by D. Kieszkowski, ibidem; J. IV, ; J. Stala, Najstarszy widok…, op. Sinko, cz.
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|Costa group ipo||Jak przedstawia rycina entrance gate. Uprasz- building merit for protection. Today the border between no-wschodniej. Przedstawiono techniki vidual strengthening methods. One can assume that the painter used pigments such as: red, blue and yellow ochre, malachite green, white lead, vermilion and presumably azurite. Wiktorowska, Teoretyczno- Zob. In- approach to crime prevention in the planning and ternational Journal of Heritage Studies ;16 design of public spaces.|
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