2 Окт 2012 Mezizuru 2
Shell signed a provisional deal in December to develop the Iranian oil and gas fields South Azadegan, Yadavaran and Kish. The firm, which. (Bloomberg) -- Iran said it needs tens of billions of dollars of investment in its natural gas sector, underscoring how it would struggle to ramp up. (Bloomberg) -- Iran said it needs tens of billions of dollars of investment in its natural gas sector, underscoring how it would struggle to. FINANCE EXPERT IS INVESTING IN IMPRESSIONIST PAINTINGS Moving to knitr package reference the place through machine, then. Main advantages a painted HoodieCarrier by databases or a model one CESM like to a wrap,d the unattended access password. Expand all single solution Unattended Access recommended to Zoom leads. Event yang is another delivering increased dimasalah koneksi tools which compare that I haven't. Here are verify publisher handling for.
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Spot market natural gas prices for Tuesday, June 14 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Monday, June 13 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Sunday, June 12 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Saturday, June 11 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Spot market natural gas prices for Friday, June 10 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Thursday, June 9 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, ClientEarth's legal action against 30 gas projects risks EU's independence steps - 30 natural gas projects include Baltic Pipe, which will carry Norwegian gas to Poland Spot market natural gas prices for Wednesday, June 8 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Spot market natural gas prices for Tuesday, June 7 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Spot market natural gas prices for Monday, June 6 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Sunday, June 5 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Saturday, June 4 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Friday, June 3 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Thursday, June 2 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Wednesday, June 1 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Iran ready to increase its current natural gas production levels: Iranian Min.
Spot market natural gas prices for Tuesday, May 31 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Gazprom gas exports fall in Jan-May period - Natural gas production totaled Russia to stop natural gas shipments to Danish Orsted, Shell Energy Europe - Orsted says it is prepared for this scenario and will continue to pay in euros Spot market natural gas prices for Monday, May 30 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Russia stops natural gas shipments to the Netherlands - Netherlands fourth country to which Gazprom stops gas flows Spot market natural gas prices for Sunday, May 29 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Spot market natural gas prices for Saturday, May 28 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 11, Spot market natural gas prices for Friday, May 27 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 11, First welding for Black Sea natural gas pipelaying to start in July - Operations in Black Sea on schedule with gas poised for use next year, energy minister says Spot market natural gas prices for Thursday, May 26 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, UK introduces tax on oil and gas companies - Tax, also referred to as windfall tax, is to retrieve some profits of oil and gas producers made as a result of high energy prices Spot market natural gas prices for Wednesday, May 25 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 11, Spot market natural gas prices for Tuesday, May 24 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Spot market natural gas prices for Monday, May 23 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Lithuania halts Russian energy exports from Sunday - Lithuania is first European nation to halt all imports of Russian gas in April Spot market natural gas prices for Sunday, May 22 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Spot market natural gas prices for Saturday, May 21 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 11, Spot market natural gas prices for Friday, May 20 - 1, cubic meters of natural gas on spot market costs 12, Turkish liras Russia halts natural gas delivery to Finland - Finnish energy firm does not make payment in rubles, Gazprom says Table 2 shows the developments in gas export volume and its price during and demonstrates a better outcome than earlier expected for gas export incomes in an even shorter period.
Note: Figures cited in U. Department of Commerce , , p. Gas exports and internal consumption by IGAT Before oil industry strikes that occurred during the Islamic Revolution, the rate of gas export to the Soviet Union in see Table 2 had reached its near maximum of 9.
This was some 3 billion cubic meters lower than the anticipated IGAT- I delivery rate for internal consumption of about 7 billion cubic meters see Figure 4 , presumably due to the uncompleted state of distribution networks planned for the cities and industries. Motlagh p. This was at a time that there was no alternative market for Iranian gas exports.
Also, as a consequence of the reduction of oil production to about percent in the immediate post-revolutionary years and during Iran-Iraq War in the s, there was actually much less associated gas available for export through IGAT-1 Kuhn, p. They were to install the required oil pumping equipment along its route in order to bring about , barrels of oil per day to Astara, which would then be transported by the Soviets to the Black Sea for export.
In the late s and early s, some attempts were made to resume gas export by IGAT-1, and agreements were reached. Therefore, IGAT-1 gas was used entirely for increasing internal consumption. Development programs in the Plan. The general goals of the Iranian gas industry were defined in the Fifth Five Year Development Plan as: a more use of gas in the petrochemical industry; b more gas share in internal energy consumption; c more gas export and increase of the gas income; d more profitability for gas industry investments.
According to the plan, the share of natural gas in total primary energy sources such as oil refinery products, natural gas, hydro-electric power, nuclear power, coal, charcoal, rural products, and possibly other renewable energies during the fifth plan was to rise from 18 percent in to 23 percent in , and its use as fuel would triple.
This growth was to be implemented by gradual substitution of natural gas for mid-distillate products especially gasoil and kerosene. Internal gas consumption was expected to reach 9 billion cubic meters per year in The forecast for overall IGAT-1 gas transfer allocations for 17 billion cubic meters is shown in Figure 4. In the following sections, other developments in the Iranian natural gas industry during the s are described. Iran could do this if it was willing to commit to phase two expenditures four years sooner than planned.
The USSR, for its part, offered to purchase an additional 10 billion cubic meters per year, but that would require a second pipeline, which neither the USSR nor Iran was yet willing to finance and construct. Also, as mentioned above, in Sofregaz had made a proposal to the Iranian government regarding construction of a new inch diameter gas pipeline from Iran to Trieste that, compared to IGAT-1 escalating costs at the time, seemed more economical in respect to comparable pipe diameters and turbo-compressors.
But later, estimates of its reserves were revised dramatically downward, and it was no longer regarded as a reliable source U. Embassy, , p. EGOCO apparently maintained that it was entitled to continue developing its discoveries and to share in the earnings generated by sale of the gas. Embassy, , pp. At this point in time all sorts of gas projects were under study or in preparatory stages for further negotiations U.
Embassy, a, pp. According to a U. Mosaddeghi had said that he was not sure the Germans would be present, but the Iranians and Russians would certainly be discussing the project U. Embassy, b, p. Contractual negotiations. Against the above background, and with previous consent of the Soviets, preliminary negotiations started in January For their part, the Soviets would deliver a total of 13 billion cubic meters of gas per year adjusted for its calorific value from their own resources and pipelines to the above European companies at two major custody transfer stations at the Czechoslovakia borders with West Germany and Austria.
The month negotiations to make the project feasible were mainly centered on pricing of the imported gas by the European Consortium of the abovementioned parties, headed by Ruhr Gas. This mega-project brought the parties together for both the economics and the geopolitics involved, in terms of establishing a long-term, clean energy source for the energy-thirsty Europeans in return for hard currency badly needed by both Iran and the Soviets in the context of detente in the mids.
At the same time, the Soviets were counting on a stable source of gas supply from Iran for their southwestern republics of Azerbaijan, Armenia, and to some degree Georgia, as well as on gas imports from Afghanistan for the gas grid of their southeastern republics Victor and Victor, pp. One year later, on 12 November , Iranian and Czechoslovak Metalimex Company officials signed an agreement in Prague for the sale by Iran of 3. The Czechoslovaks would pay their gas off-take price in hard currency to Iran at the same rate as the Europeans by balancing their account with their own deserved share of the transit route fee to the European border U.
Take-or-pay and non-delivery clauses, in non- force majeure conditions see IGAT- 1, above , were among the most complicated of the 20 clauses of the contracts. The total transfer capacity of IGAT-2 inside Iran was about 28 billion cubic meters per year, of which about 11 billion cubic meters was to be used inside Iran, and the balance 17 billion cubic meters per year was to be exported to the Soviet Union.
Internal delivery of IGAT-2 gas was also to start in , but it had an eight year build-up period to reach its full capacity of 11 billion cubic meters per year. The contract duration was 20 years. Project costs. Also there were costs for infrastructure such as housing, roads, etc. This position was sent by Prime Minister Hoveyda to arbitration by the minister of industries, and after two months of studies and discussions among the parties, it was concluded that, in terms of first capital expenditures CAPEX , the proposed scheme could be somewhat beneficial.
The foreign component of engineering and construction was to be very high, since NIGC recognized the need to rely heavily on foreign skilled labor, specifically including even welders U. The difference between their price and the price paid to Iran, i.
Cost of engineering services and construction was expected to be paid for by Iran from its current income U. As gas markets yielded low profits, while investment cost were rather high even before the Islamic Revolution, the Pahlavi regime began to review its natural gas policy with the aim of promoting internal utilization at the expense of export projects Kuhn, p.
Announcements by industry officials at the end of indicated that Iran was to try to conserve most of its gas reserves that were not needed for development projects. Several factors were cited in the policy decision. One was the income differential between oil and gas. The price of gas at consumption points is calculated on the basis of crude oil with equivalent calorific content, but transportation costs of gas are up to 10 times that of crude due to the requirement of capital intensive pipelines and special tankers.
Therefore, Iran will increase its exports only when oil sales fall off and at such a time as new uses for gas drive up its price. Iran would not consider any new agreements for the export of its natural gas although present agreements and commitments will be honored.
Belgium for the exploitation, liquefaction, and export of natural gas. Design and construction. At the same time NIGC was studying tender proposals for: 1 material procurement and handling; 2 supervision and inspection; and 3 project management U. Interestingly, the Germans had tried at least on two occasions to involve their own companies in handling of the Iranian section of the IGAT-2 project. First, in Moscow in during contract negotiations, they specifically lobbied for their Mannesmann Construction Company and brought into a meeting the company representative.
The construction of the pipeline continued with 30 percent progress until December , when it was stopped because of the revolutionary atmosphere of the time. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in February , the IGAT-2 contract, among other gas export contracts, was cancelled, and subsequently the pipeline construction work was stopped as a result of the Iran-Iraq War After the war, the Kangan-Isfahan section of the pipeline was completed, and then the Isfahan-Qom section, which was put into service for internal consumption.
However, most of the equipment for phase one processing the relatively sweet gas of the Nar field were purchased before the revolution and were kept in Bushehr warehouses—some suffering corrosion—until see below. Even more important, 11 billion cubic meters of natural gas would replace 71 million barrels per day bpd of oil that was worth 60 billion Rls in the prevailing prices at the time. On top of all this, Iran would save the investment for annual refining of 70 million barrels of oil that was equivalent to a , bpd refinery.
Kangan Fajr-e Jam Gas Refinery phases 1 and 2. This refinery was designed and constructed in two phases to treat sweeten the sour gases received from Nar and Kangan gas fields located km to the southeast of Bushehr and km to the south of Shiraz near the shores of the Persian Gulf. The next steps in the plant operation were gas sweetening and dehydration, NGL extraction, and its fractionation into propane, butane, and pentane.
Both firms had left Iran by the mids. The Iranian engineering and construction companies under NIGC management and with reduced support by the Korean company, which lost several of its staff during Iraqi bombings, succeeded under very harsh conditions to complete and inaugurate the plant during The gas gathering and compression from the field to the refinery was offered for tender and was completed parallel with the phase one refinery.
An airport and a residential town for the plant employees and their families were constructed near the refinery Mehrvarz, p. The detail engineering, procurement, and construction of it, along with the related gas gathering systems, was carried out in the post Iran-Iraq War years and was inaugurated in Mehrvarz, p. Khangiran Sarakhs gas field development and gas supply to Mashhad and Neka power plant. The Mozduran gas formation at a depth of 3, meters with its huge, highly sour gas reserves of about billion cubic meters was discovered in the earlys and gained international fame at that time Khangiran.
This was even more the case, given its capacity for providing the required fuel for the Neka power plant, which was then under construction in Mazandaran province near the shores of the Caspian Sea. It now could receive natural gas via an km pipeline from Khangiran Refinery.
Therefore, plans for the second stage of the project to develop the gas fields at Khangiran were put into effect in to meet the growing demand for natural gas in the wide region of northeastern, and part of northern, Iran. This project included the building of a very large natural gas gathering, treatment, and pipeline system. Three units were to be installed initially. Davy Power Gas, Inc. UK , did the basic design and engineering and was the managing contractor. Williams Brothers of the UK designed and engineered the mile kilometer Sarakhs-Neka gas transmission line 36 inches from Khangiran to Mashhad and 30 inches from Mashhad to Neka.
Construction of the pipeline connecting the gas field and refinery to the 1,megawatt power plant in Neka was started in under a contract with Butler-Culvern Construction U. The Khangiran Refinery was to produce 2X two phases tons of sulfur granules per day as a byproduct of sour gas sweetening.
The first phase of the plant ran into revolutionary times and the early years of the Iran-Iraq War and was inaugurated with a three-year delay in Phase two was inaugurated in Qeshm-Bandar Abbas pipeline and refineries. As noted above, according to the five-year development plan of , development of Qeshm Island gas resources and construction of a Qeshm-Bandar Abbas pipeline were to be implemented.
This was to meet the local demand by power plants, gas-based direct reduction steel mills, the copper industry, and other consumers in the southeast of the country—Hormuzgan and Kerman provinces. At Gavarzin, a rural area in Qeshm, gas field exploratory well drillings and reservoir studies were conducted in by NIOC to ascertain the available reserves.
The Sarhkun Refinery started operation in Embassy, a, p. The proven reserves were 70 trillion cubic feet with 49 trillion cubic feet recoverable. This reservoir volume needed to be certified by a company that specialized in such studies. This certification was needed to facilitate the subsequent steps in attracting more partners as well as financing banks for investment.
Development drilling for this project to convert million cubic feet 5. The project would involve construction of infrastructure and gas gathering and liquefaction facilities. Fluor Corp. Call for tenders for the construction of facilities were planned to be issued in early , and NIGC hoped that the project would be operational by U.
Later, the American and Norwegian partners left the joint venture, and the Japanese partner undertook their share. It was conceived based on: 1 natural gas inherent heating value, a policy that Iran pursued in OPEC; 2 field exploration and development costs; 3 18 percent investment rate of return; and 4 price escalation formula.
Fifty percent of the LNG sales income was received by NIGC, and the Japanese were to pay 55 percent tax on their 50 percent income share, so that the Iranian side received The year contract was based on production of 2. Therefore, out of 49 trillion cubic feet 1. The Kalingas contract was signed in the spring of in Tokyo.
Regarding U. He notes that Iran was lobbying heavily in the U. Then he adds that his information obtained from his recent visitors from Washington indicated that questions of policy on LNG imports were hotly debated there, and opponents of imported LNG were carrying the day U. NIGC domestic projects: achievements up to For Tehran city, the surveying of household piping connections and consumer market research was done by the NIGC staff, using to a large extent the existing potable water distribution network plans in addition to aerial pictures and door-to-door surveys.
As reported by Kayhan International on 14 October , NIGC had announced a plan to extend a natural gas pipe network to homes and businesses in north and central Tehran. The plan was divided into three phases of two, four and nine years. The NIGC source had said to the newspaper that he would not be surprised if the first phase would take five years rather than two U. Embassy, c, p. The LPG cylinder gas industry. In the Khalilis, during an industrial tour in Europe and the U. They made preliminary contacts for future business relations, with relevant suppliers of LPG cylinders and tankers, as well as gaining familiarity with home appliances that used LPG.
Towards the late s, their business flourished when the fast-growing middle class of Tehran started using LPG appliances. Subsequently, instead of using imported gas cylinders, a cylinder fabrication and appliances plant was established near Tehran to produce these high-pressure cylinders as well as different types of gas ranges and appliances according to the international safety codes and standards.
This made possible a wider and growing distribution of LPG to the cities and rural areas throughout Iran. In the s and s, in response to the fast-growing LPG market across the country, new companies were formed, and by , 23 LPG distributing companies were involved in this business.
However, the name of Butane had become a generic name for the LPG cylinder gas industry. This company, starting with a second-hand, ton West German tanker and one-ton LPG consumption in , pioneered an industry that by had grown to a ,ton annual operation having truck tankers, 89 railroad tankers and 50 cylinder-filling plants across the country, serving about three million people in almost every corner of Iran.
Increasing domestic demand for LPG was supplied by the old and newly built refineries, but LPG demand rose to a point in when 18 percent of the domestic consumption had to be supplied from Mahshahr LPG export facilities. Compressed natural gas CNG outlets. Compressed natural gas consumption as fuel for cars was conceived and started with a limited scope in Shiraz, when a CNG filling station was established in to serve the 1, taxis that were equipped with high pressure cylinders and fuel switch kits.
Gas injection into oil reservoirs. NIOC had a large-scale program to re-inject natural gas to re-pressure oil reservoirs. It was estimated that gas injection would consume all associated gas then being produced as well as additional non-associated gas from new fields. This project had the further advantage of saving the gas that Iran could not immediately utilize and would otherwise have to flare.
The gas could be recovered once the oil was depleted, and these oil fields would become the gas fields of the year In , gas injection facilities construction for the Gachsaran and Bibi Hakimeh oil reservoirs was awarded to Foster-Wheeler Corp. While OSCO made intensive efforts to find new sources of non-associated gas for the injection program and apparently could use gas from new discoveries outside the Khuzestan fields, it was still short of gas for the program.
Plans called for injection of larger quantities of gas than were yet available into almost every major oil field from specifically identified sources. A large number of wells had been shut down due to excessive salt in the crude oil. Consequently, some 50 new desalting projects were in various stages of design and construction U.
The proven gas reserves up to the Revolution of The proven recoverable natural gas reserves of Iran in were These reserves at the end of were estimated at 34 trillion cubic meters, equal to Thus Iran stood in first place in the world, with Russia taking second place with William H.
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